Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a pathogenic microorganism-papillomavirus, which is carried by more than 60% of humanity. An intracellular parasite is a DNA molecule in a protein capsule. Having penetrated the human body, the DNA of the papilloma virus integrates with the genetic material of the cells. The virus becomes latent, and the person - from that moment on, is a carrier of HPV. The emergence of favorable conditions activates the dormant state of the virus, which provokes the development of new infected DNA cells (transcription) and the clinical appearance of specific neoplasms - papillomas. Of the existing isolated papillomavirus species, some varieties, when transcribed, are capable of changing cell genetics. The evolution of DNA-altered human papillomavirus organics contributes to uncontrolled division. The division process forms tumor cells, which subsequently develop as oncological processes.
Ways of penetration of the papilloma virus into the body
The main method of infection with the papilloma virus can be called close contact of a latent carrier or a patient with clinically pronounced symptoms. Based on the basic method of transmission of infection, there are several subspecies:
- sexual route of infection. Infection with the papilloma virus through microtrauma of the mucous membranes when engaging in any kind of sex. Promotes the appearance of genital warts (warts) in the genital area;
- postpartum transmission of the papilloma virus (congenital infection). Infection occurs through the mucous membranes of the larynx or genitourinary system;
- household infection. After entering the environment, the papilloma virus is able to maintain pathogenic activity outside the carrier for some time. The use of common household items, swimming in water bodies, wearing someone else's clothes and shoes significantly increases the infection;
- spontaneous infection. Transfer of papillomavirus from a specific area of the body to another area of the skin. Infection occurs during hygiene procedures.
The clinic of manifestation, symptoms and the main localization of the development of human papilloma depends on the place of penetration of the virus into the body and the state of the human immune system.
In medical practice, cases of latent carriage of several human papillomavirus species have been recorded. The main symptoms of such a neighborhood may be the latent development of cancer.
Symptoms of papilloma virus infection, species characteristics of papillomas
The incubation period of bacterial activity depends on the resistance of the infected person's immune system. The duration of such a time interval ranges from several days to 3-6 months. There are frequent cases of asymptomatic infectious activity with high viral replication (simultaneous reproduction and superficial formation of different species).
The further behavior of the papilloma virus strain in the organic environment depends entirely on the species type of the causative agent of formation.
The manifestation of the characteristic symptoms of viral infection is preceded by a significant weakening of the defenses of the immune system. At the site of penetration of the bacteria, an active concentration of modified DNA cells is formed, which provokes the rapid growth of the pathogenic skin area due to their division. The resulting formations are the medical symptoms of the papilloma virus.
Subspecific types of papillomas
- simple (vulgar). Group formations of a benign nature. Easily identified, treated by surgical removal;
- flat (warts). A formation slightly protruding from the surface of the skin with small nodules at the apex, visually unsightly. Removal is advisable as soon as it appears;
- pointed (condylomas). By the type of education, they resemble cauliflower, the growths have thin legs. Frequent damage to the formations due to the specificity of the location leads to an increase in the risk of developing oncological pathology. Removal is shown without fail;
- filiform (acrochords). Solitary elongated and elastic flesh-colored formations on thin legs. In case of accidental tearing, they appear again. Most often, the doctor suggests surgical removal of the papilloma for aesthetic reasons.
The listed types of neoplasms are the most common due to the ease of their initial visual diagnosis.
A more accurate diagnosis is established by a qualified specialist based on laboratory and medical examination data.
Medical diagnosis of papilloma virus
Often, the presence of active HPV is detected during a gynecological examination or when passing special tests to determine the species type of the causative agent of the emerging formation. Residual diagnosis of infection is determined by laboratory tests for the presence or absence of immune cells-antibodies to a certain type of viral pathology, followed by identification of the DNA of the virus.
Ways to diagnose papilloma virus:
- Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). High-precision method for diagnosing pathological education. A small amount of biological substance is used (excrement or excretion of the patient). The effectiveness of the method is based on copying a selected region of human DNA. This makes it possible to detect even a single developing microbe. The method is convenient for determining the severity of the disease and predicted conclusions.
- Biopsy. Sampling of biomaterial for histological examination. It is used for differentiation of education and confirmation of the diagnosis.
- Colposcopy. Visual examination of the affected skin area with a special device with the function of optical magnification, photography and video filming. It is performed for the purpose of comparative analysis of the affected tissues before and after treatment.
Most often, in medical practice, methods of biopsy and colposcopic data analysis are used. Although there is a tendency for the papilloma virus to develop into an oncogenic one, modern medicine is limited to conservative or surgical treatment (removal of the formation).
Differences between papilloma and a mole, condyloma, warts, melanoma
The most common type of HPV is papilloma. These are benign tumor-like formations of small size with a soft-to-touch consistency. The shade of the neoplasms is close to the natural skin color. Most often, the papilloma virus occurs in women, for men there are hidden signs of pathogenic activity. Popular places for detecting papillomas are on the neck, facial area, armpits.
A mole (nevus) is the result of the accumulation of pigment melanin in adjacent melanocyte cells. The places of education are all over the body. They are neoplasms of a round or oblong shape, yellowish-brown in color, which do not change throughout life. Under the influence of direct ultraviolet radiation or physical injury, it tends to degenerate into melanoma.
Comparative table of characteristic differences between birthmarks and papillomas
|Structurality||dense, solid||loose, soft|
|Vessels||vascular network is absent, consists of skin cells||internal vascular network is present|
|Symmetry||symmetrical||lack of clear symmetry of education|
|Outlines||smooth surface||irregularities, torn surface|
|Colour||one color||the shade changes|
|Education||are inherited, appear from birth||formed about a month after infection|
|Symptoms||no||overgrowth itching, burning|
|The size||up to 10 cm||up to 10 mm|
Localization of genital warts is characterized by limited places of penetration of the virus through microtrauma of the mucous membranes - external or internal genital organs. The detection of this type of papilloma virus in women can subsequently provoke the appearance of a pathological formation (cancerous tumor) on the cervix. The growth of the same type of papillomas in men is localized on the head, frenulum of the penis.
One of the varieties of the papilloma virus - warts - are visually identified by their rapid growth, density of formation, characteristic shade (light yellow - brown), irregular shape and location. The predominant appearance of warts is recorded in the area of the upper and lower extremities.
The development of melanoma from papillomavirus formation is determined by characteristic visual signs - color, size, shape. There is an additional likelihood of detecting the formation of melanoma - discharge from the formation, frequent inflammatory processes accompanied by itching and sharp pain. The malignant neoplasm has an uneven shade, extended blurred borders with a diameter of more than 10 mm and a chaotic shape.
Human papillomavirus: main threats
Human papillomavirus infection is oncogenic. Pathogenic microbes, entering a healthy body, can cause a mutation of an organic cell in the form of a tumor-like formation, both benign and malignant.
Features of cellular disorders due to the action of the virus:
- failure of the differentiation of the infected cell, loss of genetic functions and metabolic activity;
- initialization of intensive reproduction, growth of pathogenic DNA cells.
The emergence of pathological changes that weaken the immune system in the human body (a decrease in immune defense due to hormonal failure, frequent colds, stress instability, during a period of severe illness) leads to the activation of the latent papilloma virus. This carries an additional burden on the weakened organism, and as a complicating factor, the development of the malignant etiology of the neoplasm.
It is very important to consult a doctor in a timely manner when the first signs of the appearance of formations on the skin are detected. A quick response will help in time to diagnose possible signs of a cancerous tumor at an early stage of formation and to carry out appropriate treatment.
Treatment of papilloma at home (folk recipes)
The high efficiency of conservative treatment of HPV at home is due to the rapid response to the onset of neoplasm. An overgrown papilloma is more difficult to treat with folk remedies.
Medicine calls celandine the most effective home remedy for papillomas. The plant contains natural phytoncides (antibiotics) and derivatives of poisonous alkaloids (chelidonine, sanguinarine). Due to the constituent chemical components, it has a depressing effect on the formation of pathogenic cells, destroying their structure. The affected area must be smeared only with freshly squeezed celandine juice.
Since the plant is poisonous, using it at home in the treatment of papillomavirus should be extremely careful.
Acetic lotions with a crushed clove of garlic have a cauterizing effect on the resulting papillomas. Garlic neutralizes pathogenic reproduction, and acidic action ensures its penetration deep into the formation.
An old-fashioned way of getting rid of neoplasms - cauterization of papillomas with a diluted mixture of kerosene and iodine is quite effective in the modern world. Castor and lemon oils also have acid moxibustion.
Ways to prepare an ointment for papillomas:
- Mix 9% vinegar with powdered eggshell and nutria fat.
- Grind the garlic into a mushy state, add petroleum jelly.
- Grind fresh celandine herb until gruel. Add petroleum jelly to the mixture.
The listed home remedies for combating papillomas are highly effective, but they require careful handling in treatment and a longer recovery period.
It is important to understand that with conservative home-made therapy, it is categorically not recommended to accelerate the processes of cauterization and healing by peeling off the crusts or deliberately damaging the wound. These manipulations are dangerous by introducing a re-infection with the development of the oncological direction of the disease.
Removal of papillomas and what to do after the removal procedure
It is almost impossible to completely get rid of HPV, however, it is quite possible for any person to relieve their condition and get rid of aesthetically unpleasant, uncomfortable formations.
Existing modern techniques for removing papillomas:
- Surgical excision with a scalpel
Simple operation under local anesthesia. Does not require special preoperative preparation. High risk of postoperative scar formation.
- Nitrogen action
Treatment of tumor-like formation with liquid nitrogen for the purpose of hypothermia. The cooled papilloma dries up and spontaneously disappears in a short period of time. Side effects are possible - rash, impaired circulation of the treated area.
- Removal of papillomas with a laser
Laser removal is the most accurate and effective procedure. The method is based on laser evaporation of papilloma according to the level of its penetration into the skin surface. After the procedure, a fossa is obtained at the site of formation, disappearing without a trace after two weeks.
Removal of formations is carried out under local anesthesia. With a favorable histological examination of the organic sample, the patient is discharged for outpatient treatment the next day. The first two days after removal of the papilloma, it is recommended to avoid water getting into the wound. It is also necessary to monitor the crust, not to allow it to be accidentally ripped off. With unauthorized crust fall off, the likelihood of wound healing without the formation of subsequent scars increases significantly.
Treatment in the postoperative period should be carried out under the close supervision of the attending physician. Water entering the wound, unauthorized peeling off the scab, self-treatment with ointments and lotions carries the threat of re-infection with the development of deep inflammatory processes or the formation of scars at the site of removal.
Based on the modern high cost of drug treatment, many patients ask themselves the question - is it really possible to cure papillomas with folk remedies? As statistics show, tumor-like formations caused by the action of the papilloma virus can be easily treated at home, provided that all precautions are taken. Especially in cases of exact frequency of using the beneficial properties of celandine.
When self-medicating, it is important to realize that not everything is useful when there is a lot. Sometimes it is better to do the lotion a couple of times and wait a while. If this method of treatment suits you, after a couple of days you will notice significant changes for the better.