Human papillomavirus, types of papillomas

Papillomas and wartsare benign lesions on the skin. Their appearance is caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV).

These growths spoil the appearance and undermine self-confidence. After all, they often occur in open places: face, neck, décolleté. In addition, these outgrowths are injured by clothing and become inflamed. But the most unpleasant thing is when papillomas and condylomas appear on the genitals. They can not only ruin intimate life, but also cause the development of a cancerous tumor.

The disease caused by papillomavirus is called papilomatosis. This disease is common among people who are sexually active. According to some reports, 80% of adult women have its manifestations. 70% of them were infected sexually. In men, external signs of the disease are much less common - 1% have warts on the genitals, 30-40% have an asymptomatic course of the disease.

There are two periods in a person's life when the risk of infection is especially high. The first falls on the beginning of sexual life at 17-25 years old, and the second at the peak of new partnerships at 35-40 years old. Due to the peculiarities of the development of immunity, children and adolescents who become infected from their parents are very susceptible to this virus.

Older and obese people are more prone to the appearance of papillomas. They have these neoplasms appear in the skin folds and on the face.

Not always infection with a virus leads to the appearance of papillomas. The causative agent lives in skin cells and if a person's immunity is strong, then he successfully copes with this infection. But if the body's defenses fall, then warts or papillomas appear on the skin.

Many are interested in how papillomas and condylomas differ. In fact, these are manifestations of different forms of the same virus.

what do warts look like

warts- These are benign neoplasms that are caused by the human papillomavirus types 6 and 11. Some scientists believe that condylomas are more likely to degenerate into cancerous tumors. They are found in the genital area and anus (anus), but can sometimes appear near the mouth. Warts often appear in the form of a rash consisting of many elements. They have an unpleasant property to merge and reach large sizes. On the mucous membrane of the genital organs, they grow in the form of a cock's comb.

Warts are red or dirty brown in color, but on the genitals they are lighter. To the touch they are softer and more tender than papillomas. In structure, they resemble many villi that have grown together at the base.

Warts are more contagious and tend to reappear after treatment. They come in three varieties: genital warts, flat and intraepithelial. These formations must be removed. At the same time, doctors register all cases of condylomatosis.

papillomas on the human body

Papillomas- These are benign neoplasms that are caused by less dangerous varieties of the human papillomavirus, more often types 1, 2, 3, 4, and 10. The risk of developing an oncological tumor in this case is low, papillomas are more of a cosmetic defect than a serious problem. They are located on different parts of the skin: on the eyelids, in the mouth and on the lips, on the chest and neck, underarms. But they can also be on the genitals.

Papillomas are lighter than warts: pink, white, pearl or light brown. As a rule, they appear one by one, do not merge with each other. They rarely exceed 1 cm in height. The appearance of papillomas is also different - these are rounded, bumpy formations on a stalk. They look like cauliflower and are firm to the touch.

Papillomas respond better to treatment and may disappear on their own over time. This happens in 20% of cases.

So, let's sum up. Papillomas are a less dangerous form of manifestationpapillomavirusperson. But warts must be removed. But it is difficult to independently distinguish condyloma from papilloma, because each person has his own disease. Therefore, in any case, consult a doctor for advice.

Skin papillomas

Causes of papillomas

human papillomavirus in the body

Papilloma is a round benign tumor on a thin stalk, which resembles a papilla in shape. But this is not the disease itself, but its consequences. Papillomas can be compared to mushrooms. Although we see them on the surface, the mycelium has spread its nets underground. That's the case with papillomas, everything is exactly the same.

The cause of this infectious disease is the human papillomavirus (HPV). It gets on the skin and begins to multiply in its surface layer - the squamous epithelium. The virus, like a mycelium, quietly sits in the thickness of the skin. But when immunity falls, and a sufficient amount of the pathogen accumulates, it changes the nuclei of epithelial cells. And because of this, they begin to produce "wrong" offspring. Skin cells mutated from the virus actively grow and cause the appearance of papilloma.

Ways of transmission and methods of infection

  1. Through sexual contact.The thin mucous membrane of the genital organs is very susceptible to the virus. If your partner has papillomas on the genitals, then the probability of infection is almost 100%. The use of a condom can reduce the risk. But if the outgrowths are located in an unprotected place (for example, the perineum), then infection will occur in this case. It must be remembered that with such a partner any kind of sexual contact and even kissing is dangerous.
  2. From mother to child during childbirth.This happens when the expectant mother has warts on the internal or external genitalia. During childbirth, the child swallows the virus and he develops papillomas on the larynx. This form of the disease is difficult to treat.
  3. Through household items. Especially often infection occurs through towels, washcloths, razors, epilators. In this way, children from sick parents become infected.
  4. Infection in public places.Bathhouses, swimming pools and changing rooms in gyms can be dangerous. The virus left by a sick person on wet surfaces does not die. It causes infection if the infection has got on the injured skin. But the likelihood of this is not great.
  5. Autoinfection. This means that one papilloma can cause a dozen more neoplasms to appear. Self-infection occurs during shaving or epilation, when rubbing with clothes.

Human papillomavirus, types of papillomas

diagnosis of papillomas in humans

The human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common on the planet. The causative agent of the disease itself is a double strand of DNA with genetic information, surrounded by a protective protein shell. There are over 100 varieties of it. Of these, 40 cause disease in humans. Depending on the type of pathogen, the disease has different manifestations: warts, pointed, flat or intradermal papillomas and cancer of the genital organs.

After infection, the virus penetrates the nuclei of skin cells and begins to multiply there. This continues for about 3-12 months. This period is called the incubation period: the virus is already in the body, but the external manifestations are still invisible.

Then, if the immune system is weakened, microscopic papillae consisting of several cells appear on the surface of the skin. Gradually, they increase and can grow up to 10 centimeters. If the immune system is strong, then papillomatosis either does not manifest itself at all or self-healing occurs. This can occur in young people under 25 years of age, after childbirth or when a chronic disease has receded.

There are several types of papillomaviruses:

  1. Non-oncogenic papillomaviruses (HPV 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 63).This group of viruses that do not cause rebirth in skin cells. HPV types 1, 2, 4 and 63 often cause plantar and vulgar warts on the fingers. 3 and 10 cause flat warts, which used to be considered a severe form of the disease. In fact, in this way the body tries to limit the spread of the virus. It seems to create a "sarcophagus" around the affected cells.
  2. Oncogenic papillomaviruses of low oncogenic risk (HPV 6, 11, 42, 43, 44).These types of virus can eventually cause cancer, but the risk of such a development of the disease is not very high. The cells of the squamous epithelium of the skin mutate only if the body is affected by carcinogenic factors: smoking, poor ecology, long-term use of hormonal contraceptives. Viruses of types 6 and 11 often cause the development of papillomas on the larynx and genital warts on the genitals.
  3. Oncogenic high risk papillomaviruses (HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 and 68)Infection with these viruses often leads to cancer, especially tumors of the cervix and larynx. They also cause neoplasia, a precancerous condition that manifests itself in a change in the structure of uterine cells. The most dangerous in this group is HPV 16. This type of virus causes 50% of cancer cases. The 18th strain is also quite aggressive and often causes cervical swelling. Types 31 and 35 cause bowenoid papulosis in men and women, which can cause cancer of the penis and cervix. HPV types 51 and 56 are considered the least carcinogenic of the entire group, are easier to treat and can be excreted from the body on their own.

Prognosis of the course of the disease

The most unfavorable prognosis for type 18 virus. The disease can turn into cancer in 3-5 years, which quickly dissolves metastases in other organs. The tumor behaves aggressively and grows deep into the genital organs. The prognosis for infection with type 16 is somewhat better, but the likelihood of recurrence of the tumor after treatment is high.

The prognosis for 31, 33, 35, 39, 52, 58, 59 types of the virus is unfavorable. After 2-3 years after treatment, the disease manifests itself again and often becomes malignant. Cancers caused by these types of virus have high mortality rates.

Such unfavorable prognoses should alert a person if he finds even a small outgrowth on the skin. It is necessary to consult a dermatologist or gynecologist who can accurately diagnose.
You can determine the type of human papillomavirus in laboratories. To do this, take a smear or scraping from the skin area where there are growths. Then the DNA of the virus is determined in the laboratory. Types of papillomavirus differ from each other in the structure of DNA chain sections. Helps to recognize differencespolymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Symptoms and what do papillomas look like on the skin?

Papillomas on the face (photo)

papillomas in the eye area

These benign growths are often found in places where the skin is thinnest: near the eyes, around the nose and mouth. And in men on the chin in the shaving area. Growths may appear singly or in groups. In appearance, these are rounded outgrowths similar to elongated papillae or cauliflower. Papillomas on the face are pink or brownish in color.
First, a tiny bump, similar to a pimple, appears on the surface of the skin. Gradually, it increases in size, grows up and to the sides. In diameter, the papilloma reaches up to 3 cm. Its base is narrower, and the cap is round and tuberous.

If in women papilloma on the face causes mainly aesthetic problems, then in men it is more difficult. The growths are constantly injured during shaving, and this can cause serious inflammation.

A person becomes infected through bodily contact with a sick person. This can be hugging, sexual contact, or, for example, through shared towels. From the moment of infection to the appearance of papillomas on the face, it can take from 3 months to a year. Often, growths form on the skin after infections, severe stress, hypothermia, during pregnancy, when immunity falls.

Papillomas on the skin of the neck and body (photo)

papillomas on the skin of the neck

Papillomas can appear anywhere on the body. Their location depends on gender, the route of infection and the type of HPV. Some varieties of the virus cause the appearance of warts mainly on the genitals, others on the body. In men, papillomas most often appear under the armpits, on the sides of the body and on the neck. In women, they occur on the breasts, under the breasts, on the nipples and in the armpits. But growths can also occur on other parts of the body: on the abdomen, back, hips.

Papillomas on the body occur on average 3 months after infection. But the virus can nest in the skin for several years, and manifest itself only after the fall of the body's immune defenses.

While the papilloma on the skin of the neck and body is small, it can be confused with goose bumps. But gradually it grows and begins to bring a lot of inconvenience: it clings to clothes, becomes inflamed, bleeds. In this case, you can not postpone the visit to the doctor.

Papillomas on the skin of the hands (photo)

papillomas on the hands

Vulgar papillomas or warts often appear on the skin of the hands, which are caused by HPV types 3 and 10. They are transmitted from a sick person to a healthy person and often grow in places where there were small skin lesions, especially near the nails. From infection to the appearance of warts, it takes about 2-6 months.

Papillomas on the hands have their own characteristics. They are flatter and do not sit on a narrow leg, but directly on the skin. These are small rounded formations of a yellowish color with an uneven keratinizing surface. To the touch they are dense and rough. Neighboring elements often merge and can hit a large surface. They are often located on the fingers, palms, and in children and on the knees. This is due to the fact that babies crawl without clothes. In children, warts appear more often than in adults, because their skin is thinner and more susceptible to the virus.

Papillomas on the skin of the feet (photo)

papillomas on the skin of the feet

These, benign, growths on the soles are sometimes referred to as spines. They cause aching pain and burning sensation when walking and can bring a lot of problems to a person.

The disease is caused by the human papillomavirus, or rather its types 1, 2 and 4. 4-6 weeks after infection, a smooth, light bump appears on the skin. Gradually, it increases in size and turns yellow. Its surface becomes inhomogeneous, bumpy or villous. The growth surrounds the protruding rim. In 30% of cases, papillomas on the sole disappear on their own. Self-healing mainly occurs in young people with strong immunity.
Sometimes plantar papillomas are confused with calluses that appear from prolonged squeezing of the feet with shoes. But the skin pattern remains on the callus, and the surface of the plantar wart consists of separate rounded elements.

Removal of skin papillomas

laser papilloma removal

Papillomas are removed when they spoil the appearance, are often injured, inflamed, or tend to degenerate into a cancerous tumor. The main treatment for papillomas is their removal. But in order for warts to never bother you again, you need to undergo a course of treatment:

  • Immunostimulating drugs to strengthen the body's defenses.
  • Antivirals. They do not destroy the causative agent of the disease, but only restrain its growth.
  • cytotoxic drugs. These drugs cause the death of the cells that make up papillomas and warts. They are used when the rash is very common and the larynx and other internal organs are affected. These drugs can cause serious side effects.

But the only effective means is mechanical removal. Modern medicine offers several ways that can do this. Let's take a look at their features.

Surgical removal of papillomas.

The operation is performed if the size of the papilloma is more than 1 cm or there is a suspicion that cancer cells are present in the formation. Often the doctor excised and some healthy tissue. This is necessary so that the outgrowth does not reappear. After removal, a suture is applied. The procedure is performed under local anesthesia and takes 10-15 minutes. In this case, the patient does not experience pain.

In some cases, when the papilloma has a thin stalk, it is cut off with surgical scissors. Then the vessel that fed her with blood is sealed (coagulated) using an electrocoagulator. The area is treated with an antiseptic.

Disadvantages of the method: a rather large area of skin is removed. It takes a long time to heal, after the operation, scars and scars may appear.

Cauterization of papillomas with liquid nitrogen.

cauterization of papillomas with liquid nitrogen

Another name for this method is cryodestruction, that is, destruction by cold. After the tumor (papilloma) has been examined and the analysis has shown that it is benign and there are no altered cells in it, then you can proceed to the operation.

The doctor touches the papilloma with a cotton swab dipped in liquid nitrogen or a special nozzle. The nitrogen temperature is -196 degrees. The exposure time is 5-20 seconds. The duration of cauterization depends on the size of the papilloma. Upon contact with liquid nitrogen, the water in the cells freezes, turns into ice, and its crystals destroy papillomas.

The procedure is painless, but if the skin in this place is very sensitive, then it is anesthetized with an injection of novocaine into the sore spot. After treatment with nitrogen, the skin turns white, and gradually a small bubble filled with a clear or pink liquid forms in this place. The skin around is red and swollen. At this stage, a person may experience discomfort - burning and tingling. But they gradually pass.

After the procedure, the doctor advises treating the skin with boric alcohol or potassium permanganate solution 2 times a day for a week. The ointment prevents infection, increases local immunity and reduces the risk of recurrence of papilloma.

The bubble bursts after 3-4 days and turns into a crust that protects the wound from damage. Gradually, the top layer disappears and healthy, pink skin remains under it.

Removal with liquid nitrogen is recommended if papillomas are located on the eyelids or small joints. Cryodestruction is also used to remove growths on the genitals.

The disadvantage of the method: if the doctor slightly freezes the diseased area of the skin, then the reappearance of papilloma is possible. Freezing too much damages healthy tissue and causes scarring.

Removal of papillomas by laser.

Before removal, an analysis is carried out to exclude the presence of cancer cells. The place where the wart or papilloma is located is anesthetized with a lidocaine spray. The patient is asked to wear goggles.

A beam of laser beams is directed to the neoplasm. One papilloma is affected no longer than a minute. The laser evaporates water in diseased cells, they shrink and turn into a crust. After half an hour, the skin around it turns red and swells, this is a normal reaction that will pass in a few days.

The crust falls off on its own in 5-7 days. In its place is soft pink skin. Gradually, its color evens out and there is no trace of papilloma at the site of the defect. It will take about 2 weeks for complete healing. During this period, you need to protect the skin from direct sunlight. Otherwise, a dark brown spot will appear at the site of the papilloma.

Cauterization of papillomas with a laser avoids infection of the wound with microorganisms and seals the vessels. Therefore, bleeding during and after surgery does not occur.

The crust that formed at the site of the papilloma is not recommended to be wetted and steamed for 3 days. Also, until complete healing, you can not apply decorative cosmetics. This will prevent the appearance of scars. Treat this area with a solution of potassium permanganate or a healing ointment with an antibiotic, as recommended by a doctor.
With the help of a laser, papillomas on the arms, legs, face and genitals are removed.

The disadvantage of the method: when removing large papillomas with a laser, scars may remain. Cryodestruction can lead to the fact that the papilloma will decrease in height, but will grow in width

Electrocoagulation of papillomas.

This is the removal of neoplasms using electric current. A special electrocoagulator allows you to dry the narrow base of the papilloma or the entire wart. After that, the growth is easily separated from the skin. Bleeding from the wound does not occur because the vessels are sealed with current.

Recovery will take 7-10 days. At this time, it is recommended to treat the crusts with alcohol tincture of calendula 2 times a day. This will help avoid infection. After the crust falls off, a thin pink skin is found under it, which must be protected from injury and direct sunlight.

The main advantage of this method is that the papilloma can be sent for examination to an oncologist.
Disadvantages of the method. If it is not enough to treat the area where the papilloma was located, then after a while it may grow again. Removal on sensitive areas (genitals) can be painful.

What is the best way to remove papilloma on the face and body?

Removal of papillomas on the face

Papillomas on the face are a significant lack of appearance. Therefore, their removal is a procedure that is carried out very often. The choice of method depends on the size of the build-up and its structure.

Removal of papillomas with liquid nitrogen is widespread in many clinics and beauty parlors. After it, in most cases, no scarring occurs on the skin.

Laser removal is also very popular. The specialist accurately doses the force of the laser. This helps to "evaporate" papilloma cells, but not affect healthy tissues. It is considered the safest procedure, because the laser destroys microbes that cause inflammation.

Electrocoagulation and traditional scalpel removal are more painful, and wounds after such operations heal longer.

If you prefer to be treated with natural remedies, then try to remove the defect on the face with the help of wormwood, celandine or calendula juice. To do this, several times a day, moisten the papilloma with juice that stands out from the stem of the plant.

Removal of papillomas on the eyelid

The skin on the eyelids is very thin and often develops a rash of growths. Removal of papillomas on the eyelid requires special precision. Therefore, do not go to random beauty parlors. It is better to entrust this work to a dermatologist.

The best results are obtained by removal with liquid nitrogen or laser. These methods allow you to make the procedure bloodless and avoid infection of the wound with bacteria.

Removal of papillomas on the neck

Papillomas in this area are often injured by clothing or jewelry, become inflamed. To prevent infection, doctors recommend removing them.

The most common method is cauterization of outgrowths with a laser beam. The operation lasts no longer than 1 minute for 1 growth. This method cannot completely protect against the reappearance of papillomas, but still reduces the risk.

Electrocoagulation is also used. A thin instrument, through which a high-frequency current passes, heats the tissues and kills the virus. After such a procedure, papilloma can be sent for research.

Radio wave surgery also has an excellent effect. A thin metal loop is applied to the skin around the papilloma. She creates radio waves. Under their action, the skin cells "dry out" and the growth disappears. According to the principle of operation, the method is similar to removal with a laser.

Removal of papilloma on the body

removal of papilloma on the body

It is necessary to remove papillomas on the body when there are a lot of them, they grow and merge with each other, become inflamed and cause inconvenience. You can get rid of them with the help of a traditional operation. Large papillomas are cut with a scalpel. At the same time, an area of \u200b\u200bhealthy skin is also captured in order to remove all cells affected by the virus. But this method is used when there is a suspicion that cancer cells have appeared.

A more modern and gentle method is cryodestruction. Liquid nitrogen quickly freezes the papilloma and it disappears. The remaining crust must be treated 2 times a day with an alcohol tincture of calendula and protected from water.

If possible, you can remove the papilloma with a laser or using an electrocoagulator.
After removal of papillomas, the patient can go home almost immediately. But the patient still needs to undergo an antiviral course of treatment and take care of strengthening the immune system.