Dermatovenereologists often face such a problem in their patients as papillomas on the penis. These benign neoplasms are a manifestation of human papillomavirus infection.
Papillomas must be distinguished from genital warts, which are also associated with the human papillomavirus. Some experts combine these concepts, since warts are much more common, and papillomas affect the skin of other parts of the body (torso, neck, limbs).
Papillomas on the penis is a fairly common infectious disease that requires not only complex treatment, but also certain preventive measures. The problem is connected not only with the aesthetic factor, but also with the risk of transformation into a serious oncological disease.
The formation of papillomas in the penis
Papillomas on the penis are non-cancerous formations on the leg, which are localized on the skin and mucous membranes.
The reason for their appearance is the penetration and reproduction of the human papillomavirus. Today there are many types of HPV. Papillomas in men are formed against the background of infection with a virus of type 1, 2, 3, 4 and 10. Genital warts are caused by parasitism of the virus mainly of types 6 and 11.
Many patients have no subjective symptoms. These formations often disappear on their own. Papillomas on the head of the penis are a safer pathology than warts. Despite this, these growths are a cosmetic defect that patients really want to get rid of.
Main etiological factors
The reasons for the defeat of the foreskin, head and the penis itself are few. Infection with the virus can occur as early as childhood.
The defeat of the genitals is most often due to the penetration of HPV during sexual intercourse. Oral-genital sex with a sick partner is also dangerous.
The papilloma virus has the following distinctive properties:
- throughout life can live in the human body;
- transmitted in various ways (vertical, sexual, contact-household);
- contains the genome (DNA);
- more often affects young men under 30;
- disrupts the process of growth and division of epithelial cells, against which growths (papillomas and condylomas) are formed.
The papilloma virus in a good state of the immune system does not cause disease. The causes of genital warts include a decrease in the body's resistance. This is possible against the background of diabetes mellitus, irradiation of the body, chemotherapy, chronic diseases of the heart, liver and kidneys, cachexia, alcoholism.
The following risk factors for damage to the foreskin and penis in men are distinguished:
- having multiple sexual partners;
- early sexual experience;
- unsafe sex;
- the presence of chronic inflammatory diseases of the genital organs;
- the presence of chlamydia, syphilis, ureaplasmosis, trichomoniasis;
- alcohol and nicotine addiction.
The papilloma virus is mostly in a dormant form.
Its activation occurs in weakened men.
What do genital warts look like?
These neoplasms on the penis are located one by one. They are found in the area of the foreskin, glans, frenulum and body of the penis. It is possible to involve the surrounding tissues in the process (scrotum, inguinal region, perineum, anus). Papillomas on the penis can be recognized by the following signs:
- single location;
- light color (pink or light brown);
- the presence of a thin leg;
- small size (up to 1 cm in diameter);
- round shape;
- smooth surface.
Condylomas can be larger. They are darker and tend to coalesce to form cauliflower-like lesions. In every second sick person, papillomas in the foreskin area disappear without treatment. On the head of the penis in such patients there are single formations. They do not degenerate into cancer and do not pose a big threat to humans.
Papillomas on the head of the penis can interfere with sexual life and cause a feeling of embarrassment for their loved ones. These formations are removed most often for aesthetic reasons. Papilloma under the head can be formed due to the independent transfer of the virus from another area (during washing the body or shaving). Papillomas on the penis do not cause concern to patients. They are painless and do not show symptoms of intoxication.
Patient examination methods
Before treating sick men, it is necessary to exclude other pathology and identify HPV DNA. The genome of the pathogen can be determined during the polymerase chain reaction. In addition to HPV DNA, a laboratory test can detect specific antibodies to the virus. It is very important to establish the type of HPV, as they are all different.
HPV type 56 is very dangerous as it can cause skin cancer. A biopsy is done to rule out a malignant neoplasm. The material is examined under a microscope. Be sure to conduct an external examination of the skin, palpation, as well as a survey of the patient.
When collecting an anamnesis, risk factors for the development of human papillomavirus infection can be identified. Papillomas can affect more than one organ. Often they are located simultaneously in different places (on the foreskin, urethral mucosa, trunk). An instrumental study for this viral infection in men is not required.
Ways to remove papillomas
After HPV DNA is detected and a final diagnosis is made, the doctor prescribes treatment. With a benign neoplasm and the absence of complaints, it is not necessary. Condylomas are recommended to be removed as early as possible. Treatment is carried out to eliminate a cosmetic defect. How to get rid of papillomas on the penis is known only to the doctor. The most effective radical methods of treatment.
In order to remove papillomas on the penis, the following methods are used:
- laser therapy;
- cauterization with liquid nitrogen;
- use of a radiosurgical knife.
With large formations and signs of malignancy, the treatment regimen is changed. The formation is excised within healthy tissue. Very often, papillomas are removed with an electric current. With the help of a special apparatus, the leg of the formation is excised, after which it disappears. The advantages of electrocoagulation are the absence of blood during the procedure, speed and availability.
After removal of papillomas on the penis, their re-formation is possible. In the process of cauterization, it is important not to damage the organ (healthy skin). The treatment regimen often involves cryodestruction. This is the process of freezing papillomas. He is very efficient.
Modern methods of removing neoplasms include laser therapy. The procedure is performed after local anesthesia. After removal, scars often form.
Immunostimulants, antiviral drugs and vitamins must be included in the treatment regimen for such patients.
The male genital organ must be at rest during treatment. It is necessary to refrain from sexual intercourse, otherwise you can infect others.
Thus, papillomas very often appear on the skin of the penis of men. To prevent their occurrence, you need to play sports, treat somatic diseases in a timely manner, eat well, walk more often, do not change sexual partners often, use a condom, take a regular shower and change underwear.